The Placebo Phenomenon: An ingenious researcher finds the real ingredients of “fake” medicine.

The Placebo Phenomenon: An ingenious researcher finds the real ingredients of “fake” medicine.

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For the last 15 years, Kaptchuk and fellow researchers have been dissecting placebo interventions—treatments that, prior to the 1990s, had been studied largely as foils to “real” drugs. To prove amedicine is effective, pharmaceutical companies must show not only that their drug has the desired effects, but that the effects are significantly greater than those of a placebo control group. Both groups often show healing results, Kaptchuk explains, yet for years, “We were struggling to increase drug effects while no one was trying to increase the placebo effect.”

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